PHYSICAL FEATURES AND TOPOGRAPHY

OF THE DISTRICT

THE DISTRICT HAS A PECULIAR SHAPE MORE OR LESS RESEMBLING A HUMAN BUST FACING EASTWARDS.. THE MIANWALI TEHSIL FORMS THE FACE AND PART OF THE NECK WITH THE PROJECTION OF THE SAKESAR HILL RESEMBLING A SHARP NOSE.. THE ISA KHEL TEHSIL FORMS THE BACK OF THE HEAD WITH THE BHANGI KHEL AREA PROJECTING AT THE TOP LIKE A CREST…..

THE MAIN FEATURES OF NORTHERN TEHSIL ARE (I) THE SURROUNDING HILLS WHICH ARE USEFUL MAINLY AS CATCHMENT AREAS, SUPPLYING WATER THROUGH HILL-TORRENTS TO THE PLAINS WHICH FORM A KIND OF BASI AND (B) THE INDUS BRINGING DOWN AN IMMENSE SUPPLY OF WATER AND WELL-KNOWN FOR ITS VAARIES.. WHILE THE LANDS ABOVE THE HIGH BANKS OF THE RIVER DEPEND FOR CULTIVATION MAINLY ON WATER FROM THE HILLS OR ON LOCAL RAINFALL, THE FLOODS OF THE INDUS SUPPLY MOISTURE TO THE CULTIVATED LANDS LYING WITHIN. THE EXTREME LIMITS OF ITS ENORMOUS CHANNEL.. THE UPPER HALF OF THE DISTRICT CONSISTS OF FOUR LARGE NATURAL DIVISION;

THE BHANGI KHEL, WITH ITS PECULIAR POSITION AND CIRCUMSTANCES; THE BROKEN COUNTRY SEVERED FROM THE MAIN BLOCK BY THE SPUR OF THE SALT RANGE RUNNING FROM KALABAGH TO SAKESAR AND KNOWN AS KHUDRI (ROUGH COUNTRY) OR PAKHAR ; AND THE HILL ENCIRCLED PLAIN INCLUDING THE REST OF THE TWO TEHSILS ;THE VALLEY OF THE INDUS ;.THE UPLANDS LYING BETWEEN THE HIGH BANKS OF THE INDUS AND THE HILLS OR AT THE EXTREME SOUTH OF THE MIANWALI TEHSIL . IN THE SOUTH OF THE ISA KHEL TEHSIL THE GROUP OF VILLAGES IRRIGATED FROM CANALS TAKEN OUT OF THE KURRAM RIVER FORMS AS THE FIFTH DIVISION, NOT NATURAL BUT ARTIFICIAL.

GEOLOGY

THE DISTRICT IS OF CONSIDERABLE GEOLOGICAL INTEREST, AS IT INCLUDES BOTH CIS-INDUS AND TRANS-INDUS PORTIONS OF THE SALT RANGE. THE CHIEF POINTS OF INTEREST IN THE SERIES, AS EXPOSED HERE, ARE THE DISAPPEARANCE OF THE OLDER PALAEOZOIC BEDS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF JURASSIC AND CRETACEOUS ROCKS. THE SALT MARL AND ROCK SALT STILL FORM THE LOWEST MEMBER OF THE SERIES; BUT AS A RULE ALL OVER LYING FORMATIONS, FOUND IN THE EASTERN PART OF THE RANGE BETWEEN THE SALT MARL AND THE BOLDER-BED, ARE ABSENT. THE JURASSIC BEDS ARE WELL SEEN IN THE CHICHAL; PASS WHERE THEY CONTAIN AMMONITES AND BELEMNITES, AND ARE OVERLAIN BY ROCKS WITH LOWER CRETACEOUS FOSSILS. COAL OF FAIR QUALITY OCCURS IN THE LOWER TERTIARY BEDS IN THE ISA KHEL TEHSIL, AND SALT IS QUARRIED AT KALABAGH.

FLORA

THE SALT RANGE AT KALABAGH HAS A FLORA OF ITS OWN CORRESPONDING TO THAT OF LIKE SITUATIONS ON THE RANGES EAST OF THE INDUS. THE BOTANICAL ASPECTS OF THE THREE DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE DISTRICT,ARE DESCRIBED SEPARATELY AS UNDER .

THE HILLS CONTAIN .A SCANTY VEGETATION, AND EXCEPT ON THE TOP OF THE SAKESAR HILL,OR IN THE HEART OF BHANGI KHEL TREES ARE CONFINED TO DEPRESSIONS AND LOW-LYING SLOPES. THE COMMON TREES ARE THE PHULAHI, SANATHA, KANGAN, KAN OR OLIVE, DHAMAN, KIKAR, ANAR OR POMEGRANATE. KHABARI OR WILD FIG TREE, TUT OR MULBERRY, BOHAR AND JAL.THE HILLS ARE, HOWEVER, RICH IN PLANTS AND SHRUBS, OF WHICH SOME OF THE MOST IMPORTANT ARE VIVEN, MASTIARA, HAVI, VITHAMAN, GANGER, KOHIR.


IN THE UPLAND THE COMMON TREES ARE RULHA KIKAR (ACACIA ARABICA), TAHLI (DALBERGIA SISSO), JAND (PROSOPIS APHYLLA), BER (ZIZYPHUS JUJABA) IS PLANTED OR WELLS IN THE THAL AND IS PRIZED FOR ITS FRUIT. JAL (SALVADORA OLEOIDES) IS FOUND IN GREAT QUANTITIES IN THE DAGGAR AND THAL. THE FRUIT (PILLHU) IS EATEN AND THE TREE AFFORDS AN IMPORTANT SUPPLY OF GRAZING FOR CAMELS.KERI, BABBIL, PHOG, BOHAR AND DIFFERENT SHRUBS LANA, KHIPP, AKK THRIVE IN THE DISTRICT.GRASSES ARE NUMEROUS AND CHHEMBER, SAIN ARE MOST COMMON. THERE ARE EXCELLENT FODDER FOR CATTLE AND HORSES.AMONG OTHER MINOR PRODUCTS OF THE WASTE THAL ARE KHAVI (OF LITTLE VALUE AS FODDER) CAMEL THORN (JAWAH) IS FOUND IN THE DAGGAR, NOT THE THAL BAKKRA (TRIBULUS CREEPING PLANT WITH A SPIKY POD) IS FAIRLY COMMON : IT IS GRAZED BY SHEEP AND GOATS AND THE SEEDS ARE EATEN BY PEOPLE IN TIME OF SCARCITY. SMALLER FODDER GRASSES ARE MADHANA, A GOOD GRAZING GRASS, DODAK, A CREEPING GRASS, UHPERS, OR CAMELS FOOT : GARAKPAN, VAN VERI, A LONG CREEPING GRASS; SIJUBHANA, A WILD INDIGO EATEN BY CAMELS, BHETTEL, DANDELIOUS, FOUND ONLY IN THE NORTH THAL; PHULI AND SAYABOHAR, WITH A SMALL WHITE FLOWER, LUDRI AND BUDIA, GRASSES WITH SPIKY HEADS; SIT AND TRANGER, RESEMBLING BHAKRA; KAMALI BUTI, WITH A FLAT THISTLE-LIKE LEAF: POCHKIA A CREEPING PLANT WITH BROAD ROUND LEAVES, NANU, A BITTER VETCH, AND HAMCHA, A LIGHT FRAGILE GRASS. PADBAHERA, OR FUNGI OF ALL SORTS, ARE COMMON AND MUSHROOMS (KUMBHI) GROW FREELY ON THE SAND HILLS IN THE AUTUMN RAINS. THE LARGER KIND (KUMBHOR) ARE INDIGESTIBLE. BUT THOSE CALLED CHALLI KUMBHI ARE OF FAIR FLAVOUR. PIPPA IS AN EDIBLE ASPARAGUS-LIKE PARASITE WHICH GROWS OUT OF THE ROOT OF KARI TREES; TANDLA IS A BERB-LIKE GROWTH FROM THE ROOT OF JAND TREES: KORTAMMA OR TAMMA, THE YELLOW COTOCYNTH, IS COMMON, AND IS VALUED FOR ITS COOLING PROPERTIES. BHUKAL, A SMALL LEEK-LIKE PLANT, SPRINGS UP WITH THE WHEAT ON THE WELLS; BOTH THE PLANT ITSELF AND ITS SEED ARE, AS ELSEWHERE IN THE PUNJAB, EATEN BY THE PEOPLE IN TIMES OF SCARCITY.

THE TREES PECULIAR TO THE KACHA OR RIVER-AIN TRACT ARE :-BHAN WHICH GROWS WILD ON NEWLY FORMED LAND WHERE THE ACCUMULATION OF SILT IS LARGE. THE WOOD IS LIGHT AND IS USED FOR BEDS, DOOR FRAMES AND ROOFING.LAI ALSO GROWS SPONTANEOUSLY ON NEWLY SILTED UPLAND, BUT NOT USUALLY TO A LARGE SIZE. THE BRANCHES ARE USED FOR THATCHING AND FOR MAKING SCREENS AND THE WOOD FOR FUEL.TAHLI, KIKAR AND BER ARE ALSO FOUND, BUT THESE ARE USUALLY SOWN.THE CHIEF PLANTS AND GRASSES ARE:- SARKANA, MORE COMMONLY CALLED MUNJKANA GROWS IN ABUNDANCE ON NEWLY FORMED LAN AND IS OF CONSIDERABLE UTILITY. THE UPPER PART OF THE STEM (TILLI) IS USED FOR BASKETS; ITS SHEATH (MUNJ) IS BEATEN UP TO MAKE ROPES, THE STEM (KANA) IS USED FOR FENCES AND HUTTINGS AND SEVERAL OTHER USES: THE FLOWERS (BULLU) ARE GIVEN AS MEDICINE TO COWS: KANA IS A REED THAT AFFORDS EXCELLENT FODDER AND IS USED FOR THATCHING.KUNDR THE BULRUSH, GROWS ON BANKS AND CREEKS AND IN SHALLOW WATER. IT IS USED LARGELY FOR MAKING MATS, BASKETS AND STRINGS.TALLA THE BEST FODDER GRASS FOR HORSE, AND ALSO EATEN BY CATTLE.DRABH A COARSE GRASS WHICH GROWS EVEN ON SALT INFECTED LAND. IT HAS LONG ROOTS AND IS VERY TENACIOUS. IT IS EATEN BY CATTLE, BUT IS POOR FODDER.
THE FOLLOWING ARE AMONG THE COMMONER WEEDS:-SINJI, MAINA, JAWANH OR CAMEL-THORN, LIHU, A THISTLE, JOHDRA (WILD COAT) OZI AND KHIVI.

FAUNA

THE FOLLOWING GAME BIRDS ARE FOUND IN THE DISTRICT – THE GREAT INDIAN BUSTARD -. (TEG) A PAIR OR TWO COME TO THE DISTRICT EVERY YEAR AND USUALLY MAKE A SHORT STAY IN THE THAL BETWEEN WAN BACHRAN AND BHAKKAR.. THE HOUBARA BUSTARD (TILOOR) BEGINS TO COME DOWN FROM THE HILLS TOWARDS THE END OF SEPTEMBER IS USUALLY FOUND ALL OVER THE THAL AND ALSO IN THE DRIER PART OF KACHA PARTICULARLY IN THE NORTHERN HALF OF THE DISTRICT.. OCTOBER AND NOVEMBER ARE THE BEST MONTHS. THE LESSER BUSTARD – (CHOI TILOOR) IS SMALLER VARIETY OF TILOOR AND IS FOUND WITH THE TILOOR PROPER.THE PINTAIL AND THE COMMON SAND-GROUSE, CALLED THE CHOTA BHATTITTAR.

 THESE BIRDS ARE LESS NUMEROUS, BUT SOME OF THEM BREED IN THE DISTRICT AND ARE FOUND HERE ALL THE YEAR ROUND………. CHIKOR (HILL PARTRIDGE) IS FOUND IN THE SAKESAR HILLS, AT JABA AND IN BHANGI KHEL.MUSHKI USTAR (BLANK PARTRIDGE) ABOUNDS IN AND NEAR THE HILLS AND IN THE THAL, BEING FOUND ALSO IN SMALLER NUMBERS IN THE KACHA. THE IMPERIAL HILL PIGEON OR WOOD PIGEON, CALLED LOTANS IS FOUND ONLY IN THE SKESAR HILLS… KUNJ IS CAUGHT IN LARGE NUMBERS BY PATHANS LIVING NEAR THE HIGH BANKS OF THE RIVER BETWEEN KALABAGH AND MIANWALI.. FLIGHTS PASS OVER THIS PART OF THE RIVER ON THEIR WAY TO AND BACK FROM THE PUNJAB AND EITHER SETTLE IN THE KACHHI FOR THE NIGHT OR FLY VERY LOW OVER THE SANDS.. P[ARTIES OF YOUN MEN GO OUT AT. NIGHT AND TRY TO MEET FLIGHTS PASSING OVER THEIR HEADS.. THEY CARRY SAH (WHICH BONSISTS OF A BULLET OF LEAD ATTACHED TO A LONG STRING) AND FLING THE LEAD UP INTO THE FLIGHT KEEPING THE END OF THE STRING TIGHT IN THE LEFT HAND.. THE LEAD TRAVELS DOWN IN A SEMICIRCLE PASSING THE STRING ROUND THE NECK OR WINGS OF THE CRANE WHICH IS PULLED DOWN.. THIS IS CONSIDERED GREAT SPORT AND PARTIES RETURN IN THE MORNING WITH LARGE BAGS.AS MANY AS 80 ARE USUALLY CAUGHT IN ONE TRIP.

RIVERS AND NULLAHS

THE INDUS

 

PIERCING THE SALT RANGE IMMEDIATELY ABOVE KALABAGH THROUGH A NARROW CHANNEL OF ITS OWN BORING, ENTERS THIS DISTRICT, AND FLOWS PLACIDLY ON WITH A FALL OF ABOUT ONE FOOT TO THE MILE IN A SOUTHERLY DIRECTION FOR THE NEXT FORTY MILES OF ITS COURSE.. FREED FROM ITS MOUNTAIN BARRIERS, IT RAPIDLY SPREAD OUT IN THE PLAIN UNTIL ITS BED FROM BANK TO BANK ATTAINS, A FEW MILES ABOVE ISA KHEL, A MAXIMUM WIDTH OF NEARLY 13 MILES.. WITHIN THIS BED ARE A NET-WORK OF SHIFTING CHANNELS IN ONE OR OTHER OF WHICH THE MAIN STREAM ROLLS ON. BY THE TIME IT PASSES DOWN FROM THE MIANWALI TO THE BHAKKAR TEHSIL, THE RIVER HAS LOST MUCH OF THE VELOCITY WITH WHICH THE WATER RUSHES FORTH FROM THE GORGE AT KALABAGH AND THROUGHOUT THE BHAKKAR TEHSIL CONFINES ITSELF TO A MORE OR LESS DEFINED COURSE.. THE EASTERN HALF OF THE AREA BETWEEN THE TWO HIGH BANKS IS SPREAD OVER WITH A NET-WORK OF NATURAL CREEKS AND ARTIFICIAL CHANNELS AND THE FLOOD WATER SPREADS OVER THE COUNTRY THROUGH THESE CHANNELS BY MEANS OF CHECK DAMS UNDER THE CONTROL OF DISTRICT AUTHORITIES.. THE VAGARIES OF THE RIVER ARE LIMITD TO THE WESTERN HALF OF THIS TRACT WHERE THE SPILL WATER SPREADS UNCHECKED AND THE MAIN STREAM KEEPS SHIFTING ABOUT FROM ONE PLACE TO ANOTHER.

THE KURRAM

 

 

THOUGH INSIGNIFICANT AS COMPARED TO THE INDUS, IS A FORMIDABLE STREA; IT ENTERS THE ISA KHEL TEHSIL AT THE DAZRA TANG PASS AND FLOWS ALMOST EAST THROUGH THE SOUTHERN PART OF THAT TEHSIL UNTIL IT GETS LOST IN THE WATERS OF THE INDUS.. ORDINARILY IT IS A SMALL AND EASILY FORDABLE HILL-TORRENT, BUT IT BRINGS VERY LARGE QUANTITIES OF WATER FROM THE BANNU HILLS DURING THE RAINS.. THESE FLOODS DO NOT LAST LONG, BUT WHILE THE STREAM IS IN FLOODS, IT IS IMPOSSIBLE OWING TO THE RAPIDITY OF THE CURRENT AND THE EXTREMELY UN-RELIABLE NATURE OF THE SAND IN ITS BED, TO FORD IT.. THE STREAM SUPPLIES WATER, THROUGH A NUMBER OF SMALL CANALS, TO THE LANDS IN THE SOUTH OF THE ISA KHEL TEHSIL… THERE ARE OVER 150 HILL-TORRENTS MOSTLY IN ISA KHEL TEHSIL WHICH OVERFLOW THEIR BANKS AND SERVE A LARGE AREA WITH THEIR FLOW.

LAKES AND MARSHES

THE ONLY LAKE OF ANY INTEREST IN THE DISTRICT IS THE NAMMAL LAKE WHICH HAS BEEN ARTIFICIALLY CREATED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF A LARGE DAM ACROSS A GORGE BETWEEN NAMMAL AND MUSA KHEL.. FURTHER EXTENSION HAS ALSO BEEN MADE AND THE LENGTH OF THE CHANNEL IS NOW 24 MILES TAKING OFF ITS SUPPLY FROM THE RESERVOIR.. IT IRRIGATES THE CATCHMENT AREA OF THE RESERVOIR COMPRISING 125 SQUARE MILES OF STEEP HILLY TRACT AND 67.6 SQUARE MILES OF FLAT OPEN AREA.

IRRIGATION IN THE DISTRICT

THE MAIN SOURCES OF IRRIGATION IN THE DISTRICT ARE AS FOLLOWS:-

CANAL………..

 

 

THE NAMES, TOTAL MILEAGE OF CANALS AND AREA IRRIGATED BY EACH CANAL IS INDICATED IN THE TABLE BELOW:-

Name of Canal Length Area irrigated Acres
Kas Umar Khan 13 7,402

TUBEWELLS/OPEN SURFACE WELLS

THERE WERE 24 TUBE-WELLS INSTALLED BY PRIVATE LAND-OWNERS.. ALL WERE IN WORKING ORDER AND THE AREA IRRIGATED BY THEM WAS 1,445 ACRES.. THEY WERE MOSTLY FOUND IN BHAKKAR TEHSIL. 4,566 MASONRY OR NON-MASONRY OPEN SURFACE WELLS WERE. FOUND N THIS DISTRICT OUT OF WHICH 3,263 WERE. WORKING AND 1,303 ABANDONED.. THE AREA IRRIGATED BY THEM WAS 27,783 ACRES. AS MANY AS 3,406 WERE FOUND IN BHAKKAR TEHSIL.

RODKOHI OR FLOOD IRRIGATION

THERE WERE 156 HILL-TORRENTS (GHANDIS) WHICH OVERFLOW THEIR BANKS IN RAINY SEASON AND SERVE AN AREA OF 8,719 ACRES. THEY ARE MOSTLY FOUND WERE IN ISAKHEL TEHSIL.

MOUNTAINS AND HILLS

THE MAIN MOUNTAINS AND HILLS ARE THE SALT RANGE AT KALABAGH , THE SAKESAR HILLS, THE BHANGI KHEL AND KHATTAK NIAZI. A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE HILLS HAS BEEN GIVEN ABOVE UNDER PHYSICAL FEATURES AND TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY.
THE UPPER HALF OF THE DISTRICT IS QUITE PICTURESQUE. THE BARE HILLS OF BHANGI KHEL ARE GENERALLY UNINVITING, BUT TOWARDS THE NORTH OF IT, THERE ARE PRETTY LITTLE GREEN STRETCHES OF LAND OFTEN FULL OF CULTIVATION AND ENCIRCLED BY EQUALLY ATTRACTIVE HILLS, WHILE THE RAVINES ARE STUDDED WITH TREES AND SHRUBS. THE VIEW FROM THES HILL-TOPS IS ADMIRABLE. THE RIDGES ARE FROM 2,000 TO 4,500 FEET HIGH. THE MOST PICTURESQUE SPOT IN THE WHOLE DISTRICT IS KALABAGH WHERE THE INDUS DEBOUCHES FROM THE HILLS. THE HILLS ON EITHER SIDE OF THE RIVER SPREADING OUT LIKE THE TAIL OF A SCORPION, WITH A LARGE PLAIN IN FRONT AND WITH DISTANT HILLS IN THE BACK-GROUND ARE DELIGHTFUL TO THE EYE. A HAMLET CALLED KUKRANWALA WANDHA, LYING OPPOSITE MARI AND A COUPLE OF MILES ABOVE KALABAGH IS AN EXCELLENT PLACE FOR WATCHING WHAT IS OFTEN A MOST GLORIOUS SUNSET. THE MAIDANI AND DHAK RANGES ARE BARE AND RUGGED. THE VALLEY OF THE INDUS IS PRACTICALLY LEVEL AND POSSESSES MILES AND MILES OF GREEN CROPS IN WINTER INTERCEPTED ONLY BY A CREEK, AND ISLAND OF SAND OR THICK JUNGLE OF REEDS. THE UPLANDS IN THE MIANWALI AND ISA KHEL TEHSILS ARE CUT UP BY HILL-TORRENTS AND WHILE THE TRACT LOOKS DESPERATELY ARID IN A YEAR OF DROUGHT, THE WHOLE COUNTRY SIDE IS ONE PATCH OF VERDURE IN A YEAR OF GOOD RAINFALL.

AT THE EXTREME NORTH OF THE DISTRICT AND SITUATED BETWEEN THE INDUS AND THE KHATTAK HILLS OF KOHAT IS A HORN-LIKE PROJECTION THE ISA KHEL TEHSIL KNOWN AS BHANGI KHEL, WHICH IS WILD MOUNTAINOUS COUNTRY CONSISTING OF A SUCCESSION OF STEEP HILLS AND DEEP RAVINES, WITH CULTIVATION ON FLATTENED HILL TOPS OR SIDES OF RIGES OR ALON THE BEDS OF THE HILL-TORRENTS. AT THE BASE OF THIS HORN, THE HILLS BIFURCATE, ONE RANGE KNOWN AS MAIDANI OR KHATTAK NIAZI GOING ROUND THE NORTH AND WEST OF THE ISA KHEL TEHSIL IN THE FORM OF A BOW, UNTIL IT ALL TOUCHES A PROLOGATION OF THE KHESORE AND PANIALA HILLS OF THE DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT AT DARA TANG, A PASS CUT OUT BY THE WATER OF THE KURRAM RIVER. THE KHESORE HILLS STRETCH ALONG THE SOUTHERN BOUNDARY OF THE ISA KHEL TEHSIL AND THEN RUN PARALLEL TO THE RIVER, FORMING ITS RIGHT BANK DOWN TO THE SOUTHERN LIMIT OF THE MIANWALI TEHSIL THE OTHER RANGES CUT OFF FROM THE BASE BY THE NARROW STREAM OF THE INDUS, SHOOTS SOUTH-EAST THROUGH THE MIANWALI TEHSIL AND IS LIKED WITH THE SALT RANGE PROPER AT SAKESAR. THIS SPUR SEPARATES FROM THE MAIN PORTION OF IT A PART OF THE MIANWALI TEHSIL KNOWN AS KHUDRI, CONSISTION OF ROUGH GROUND FULL OF SMALL HILLOCKS AND INTERSECTED BY RAVINES AND HILL-TORRENTS. THE TRACT BETWEEN THIS RANGE AND THE KHATTAK NIAZI IS REGULAR VALLEY ENCIRCLED BY HILLS. SOUTH OF THIS THERE IS LIGHT SANDY LAND MERGING GRADUALLY INTO THE THAL OF THE KHUSHAB TEHSIL ON THE EAST AND THAT OF BHAKKAR ON THE SOUTH. IN THE MIDDLE OF THE VALLEY FLOWS THE GREAT RIVER INDUS BOTTLED UP BY THE ADJOINING ROCKS ALL ALONG THE EAST OF BHANGI KHEL AND CONFINED TO A VERY NARROW CHANNEL TILL IT BREAKS THROUGH THE LETTERS AT KALABAGH AND SPREADS OUT, POURING ITS WATER OVER VAST AREAS.

CLIMATE

THE MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE IN SUMMER IS 115 DEGREES AND THE MINIMUM IS 65 DEGREES, THE SUMMER MEAN BEING 900 : HOTTEST MONTHS ARE JUNE JULY AND AUGUST, THE MAXIMUM DURING WINTER IS 65 DEGREES AND THE MINIMUM 410 WHICH GIVES A MEAN OF 53 DEGREES.

NATURAL CALAMITIES

.EARTHQUAKES SHOCKS ARE FELT OCCASIONALLY, BUT THEY ARE VERY SLIGHT. .NO REGULAR CYCLONES PASS OVER THE DISTRICT.. DUST-STORMS ARE COMMON IN SUMMER AND SOME OF THEM ARE OF VERY CONSIDERABLE FORCE, CARRYING AWAY TREES AND THATCHED ROOFS BEFORE THEM.. BUT ON THE WHOLE THEY ARE NOT VERY DESTRUCTIVE.. THEY BEGIN EARLY IN APRIL AND CONTINUE MORE OR LESS REGULARLY UNTIL THE RAINS SET IN…


WIND-STORM AND HAIL-STORMS ARE NOT UNCOMMON IN THIS DISTRICT. HAIL-STONES AS LARGE AND AS HARD AS GOLF BALLS SELDOM FALL IN GREAT QUANTITY AND ALL THE CROPS WITHIN THE RANGE OF THEIR COURSE ARE TOTALLY DEVASTATED. STRONG WIND CONTINUES TO BLOW DURING THE YEAR CARRYING AWAY PARTICLES OF SAND AND THICK CLODS BEFORE THEM.

WELL KNOWN

LIVE-STOCK FARMS

IN THE DISTRICT

THERE WERE TWO WELL KNOWN LIVE-STOCK FARMS IN THE DISTRICT.

COMMONWEALTH LIVE-STOCK-FARM AT RAKH GHULAMAN. THE COMMONWEALTH LIVE-STOCK FARM WAS ESTABLISHED IN 1951 IN THAL UNDER THE AEGIS OF THE COLOMBO PLAN. AID IN THE FORM OF MACHINERY AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE WAS GIVEN BY NEW ZEALAND, AUSTRALIA AND CANADA IN THE EARLY STAGES. THE PURPOSE OF THIS FARM IS TO PROVIDE IMPROVED TYPES OF DHANNI BREED CATTLE, POULTRY AND SHEEP AND PROVIDE A NEW INDIGENOUS BREED OF SHEEP BY CROSSING CORRIEDALESHEEP WITH INDIGENOUS MALHI STRAIN. THE NEW BREED IS CALLED THAL DATE. THE FARM IS ENGAGED IN THE PRODUCTION OF NILI BUFFALOES FOR MILK, DHANNI CATTLE FOR DRAUGHT PURPOSES, SHEEP FOR GOOD QUALITY WOOL AND MUTTON AND IMPROVED TYPES OF POULTRY STOCK FOR EGGS AND MEAT.THE NEW ZEALAND GOVERNMENT HAS DONATED A DAIRY FACTORY PLANT AND EQUIPMENT WORTH RS. 3,57,879 FOR THE ECONOMIC DISPOSAL OF DAIRY PRODUCTS AT THIS FARM. THE PLANT WILL BE USED FOR STERILIZATION OF MILK. IT IS EQUIPPED WITH RECONSTITUTION UNIT, GHE MAKING PANS, MILK TESTING LABORATORY ETC. THE PLANT HAS BEEN INSTALLED UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF FOREIGN DAIRY EXPERTS AND HAS GONE INTO OPERATION.ALL OUT EFFORTS ARE BEING MADE TO RAISE FODDER PRODUCTION AT THE FARM SO AS TO INCREASE THE HERD STRENGTH OF MILK ANIMALS. IT IS PROPOSED TO SUPPLY STERILIZED MILK IN ONE PINT BOTTLES TO RAWALPINDI WHERE THERE IS ACUTE SHORTAGE OF GOOD MILK.

LIVE-STOCK FARM AT KALABAGH-    SHEEP BREEDING IS VERY POPULAR IN THE DISTRICT.THAL IS THE HOME-TRACT OF THE SO WELL-KNOWN THALLI BREED OF SHEEP WHICH CONSTITUTES ABOUT 15 PER CENT POPULATION OF THE WHOLE COUNTRY.MANKERA, HYDERABAD, FAZIL AND RATERI ARE SOME OF THE MAIN CENTRES OF THALLI SHEEP BREEDING.. THEIR WOOL IS COARSE AND IS USED FOR CARPET MAKING. CROSS BREEDING OF SHEEP WITH THE EXOTIC BREED OF SHEEP HAS BEEN UNDERTAKEN AT THE COMMONWEALTH LIVE-STOCK FARM, RAKH GHULAMAN AND THE KALABAGH LIVE-STOCK FARMS.COMMONWEALTH LIVE-STOCK FARM SHEEP IS ALSO CROSS BREEDING AND HAS BEEN SUCCESSFUL IN PRODUCING MEDIUM TYPE OF WOOL FOR CARPETS ONLY.

COMMUNICATIONS

ROADS

THE DISTRICT IS SERVED BY THE FOLLOWING HIGHWAYS AND ARTERIAL ROADS:-

LAHORE-SARGODHA-MIANWALI-BANNU ROAD…….

MIANWALI-MUZAFFARGARH ROAD-R.U.CROSS KHAN WAR-MANKERA HYDERABAD-CROSS

MIANWALI, TALAGANG-RAWALPINDI-PESHAWAR ROAD

BHAKKAR-JHANG-LYALLPUR-LAHORE

RAILWAYS

THE DISTRICT IS SERVED BY THE FOLLOWING RAILWAY LINES.

KUNDIAN-MARI INDUS-DAUDKHEL-CAMPBELLPUR.

KUNDIAN-MAHMOOD KOT-SHER SHAH-MULTAN.

MARI INDUS-LAKKI MARWAT-BANNU.(STOPPED AND FINISHED IN 1980)

THE PRINCIPAL RAILWAY STATION ON EACH LINE ARE /WERE :-

KUNDIAN, GHANDI, MIANWALI, SAMANDWALA, PAIKHEL, DAUDKHEL, MARI INDUS, ALUWALI, BUMB, PIPLAN, KALLURKOT, MAIBAT SHAHLAM, PANJ-GRAIN, DARYAKHAN, MOTLAJAM, BHAKKAR, KALABAGH, KAMAR MASANI, TARAGH, ISAKHEL.

.

STREAMER SERVICE

STREAMER SERVICE DURING SUMMER ON THE INDUS RIVER FROM DARYA KHAN TO D. I. KHAN WAS AVAILABLE.. IN ADDITION THE FOLLOWING FERRY SERVICES WERE MAINTAINED.

.

.KALABAGH………… DAUDKHEL………… KUNDIAN………… MIANWALI………… PIPLAN. KALLURKOT. SHAH ALAM (KUNJAN). BHAKKAR (DAJAL)

AIR LINE

THERE IS AIR SERVICE IN THE DISTRICT DUE TO MIANWALI BASE BUT NOW A DAY NO FLIGHTS FROM PIA

INDUSTRIES

LARGE SCALE

THE DISTRICT HAS BEEN CONSIDERABLY INDUSTRIALIZED.. THERE ARE TWO TEXTILE MILLS, ONE AT QUAIDABAD AND THE OTHER AT BHAKKAR. THERE IS A BIG CEMENT FACTORY NAMELY THE MAPLE LEAF CEMENT FACTORY AT SAUD KHEL. A FERTILIZERS FACTORY, A CHEMICAL FACTORY AND A PENICILLIN FACTORY ARE ALSO FUNCTIONING AT DAUD KHEL.

SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES

THE THAL DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY HAVE SET UP TRAINING-CUM-PRODUCTION CENTRES TO PROVIDE OPPORTUNITIES FOR SETTLERS.AT KALABAGH ORNAMENTAL LAMPS AND POTS ARE ENGRAVED OUT OF SALT STONES, WHICH ARE SENT TO DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. FANS AND MATS OF PATHA LEAVES ARE PREPARED ON A LARGE SCALE BY THE PIRACHA WOMEN IN KALABAGH WHICH ARE SENT OUT OF THE DISTRICT TO ALL PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. SUCH MATERIAL WAS BEFORE PARTITION, PREPARED AT A VERY LARGE SCALE IN VILLAGE SHAH ALAM, TEHSIL BHAKKAR ALSO AND EXPORTED TO OTHER PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. THIS VILLAGE INDUSTRY HAS HAD A SETBACK AFTER PARTITION, ON THE MIGRATION OF HINDU MONEYED CLASS, FOR LACK OF FUNDS. MATTING AND BED COVERS ARE MADE AT VILLAGES. HYDERABAD AND MANKERA IN THE BHAKKAR TEHSIL.THE HAND-LOOMS INDUSTRY IS CARRIED OUT ON A FAIRLY LARGE SCALE IN THIS DISTRICT.

LAND REFORMS

308 LANDLORDS WHO OWNED AND POSSESSED AN AREA GREATER THAN 500 ACRES OF LAND, FILED THEIR DECLARATION FORM WITH THE DEPUTY COMMISSIONER, MIANWALI, UNDER THE PROVISIONS OF MARTIAL LAW REGULATION NO. 64. ON VERIFICATION OF THEIR DECLARATIONS 39 LANDLORDS WERE FOUND TO BE OWNING OR POSSESSING AN AREA GREATER THAN THE CEILING PRESCRIBED UNDER THE LAND REFORMS REGULATION. AN AREA OF 1,11,531 ACRES WAS BEEN RESUMED FROM THE BIG LANDLORDS UNDER THE LAND REFORMS REGULATION IN THIS DISTRICT. AN AREA OF 13,877 ACRES OUT OF THE RESUMED AREA WAS UNDER CULTIVATING POSSESSION OF THE TENANTS. THIS AREA HAS BEEN SOLD TO SUCH TENANTS NUMBERING ABOUT 3,000 ON EASY 50 HALF –YEARLY EQUATED INSTALLMENTS. AN AREA OF 4,125 ACRES WAS SOLD IN OPEN AUCTION AND AN AREA OF 4,588 ACRES WAS SOLD TO SMALL LANDOWNERS TO UPGRADE THEIR HOLDINGS TO THE LEVEL OF SUBSISTENCE HOLDINGS. THE IMPORTANCE AND USEFULNESS OF STUDS AND LIVE-STOCK FARMS WAS ALSO NOT LOST SIGHT OF. AN AREA OF 18,619 ACRES WAS LEASED OUT FOR STUDS AND LIVE-STOCK FARMS, FOR SO LONG AS THE AREA WAS MAINTAINED FOR THE PURPOSE. AN AREA OF 11,128 ACRES OUT OF THE RESUMED LAND WAS TRANSFERRED TO THE LOCAL FOREST DEPARTMENT FOR AFFORESTATION.

PEOPLE AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTS

POPULATION

THE TOTAL POPULATION ENUMERATED IN 1961 WAS 7,46,733 OUT OF WHICH 3,93,375 WERE MALES AND 3,53,358 FEMALES.. THE POPULATION ENUMERATED IN 1951 CENSUS WAS 5,49,549 OUT OF WHICH 2,89,424 WERE MALES AND FEMALES WERE 2,60,125.. THE PERCENTAGE INCREASE DURING THE 10 YEARS BETWEEN 1951 AND 1961 WORKS OUT TO 35.88.. THE PERCENTAGE OF INCREASE AMONGST THE MALES 35.92 AND AMONG THE FEMALES 35.89.. THE SUB-JOINED STATEMENT INDICATES THE POPULATION GROWTH IN THE DISTRICT FOR THE PERIOD 1901 TO 1961 AS BELOW:-

TOTAL POPULATION AND VARIATION FROM 1901 TO 1961

.

Population

1901

1911

1921

1931

1941

1951

1961

3,01,910

3,41,377

3,58,205

4,11,539

5,06,321

5,50,499

7,46,733

Increase/decrease of Population over preceding Census.

.

39,467

16,828

53,334

94,782

44,178

1,96,234

Percentage of increase/decrease over preceding Census

.

31.1

4.9

14.9

28.0

8.7

35.65

RURAL POPULATION….

. THE URBAN/RURAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE POPULATION IS INDICATED BELOW:-

.

.

.

PERCENTAGE

.

1961

1951

1961

TOTAL

7,46,733

5,50,499

100.00

RURAL

6,04,537

4,92,295

80.96

URBAN

1,42,196

58,204

19.04

.THE AREAS CLASSIFIED AS URBAN IN THE DISTRICT IN THE 1961 CENSUS WERE MIANWALI MUNICIPALITY, BHAKKAR TOWN, DAUDKHEL, KUNDIAN PACCA, MUSA KHEL, DARYA KHAN, KALA BAGH TOWN, MOEHH, ISA KHEL TOWN, KALLUR KOT TOWN AND LIAQUATABAD. IN RESPECT OF URBANIZATION THE DISTRICT HAS REGISTERED AN INCREASE OF 144,31 PER CENT OVER THE DECENNIAL PERIOD, WHICH SHOWS THE EXTENT OF

MOBILITY OF THE POPULATION

THE PRINCIPAL REASONS FOR MOBILITY ARE INDUSTRIALIZATION AND GREATER EDUCATIONAL AND EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN URBAN LOCALITIES.

LANGUAGEs AND LITERACY

THE PRINCIPAL MOTHER TONGUE OF THE DISTRICT IN PUNJABI.. THE OTHER IMPORTANT LANGUAGES SPOKEN IN THE DISTRICT ARE URDU AND PUSHTU.. THE PERCENTAGE OF PEOPLE SPEAKING THESE LANGUAGES IN THE DISTRICT IS INDICATED IN THE TABLE BELOW:-

LANGUAGE

PERCENTAGE

PUNJABI

92.3

URDU

10.2

PUSHTU

6.0

THE NUMBER OF LITERATES RECORDED IN THE 1961 CENSUS WAS 91,251 OUT OF WHICH 78,525 ARE MALES AND 12,726 FEMALES, WHICH GIVES AN OVER-ALL PERCENTAGE OF 12.22.. CONSIDERING THE LITERACY FIGURES BY SEX, THE PERCENTAGE OF LITERACY AMONGST MALES IS 19.96 AND FEMALES 3.60.. THE POSITION OF THE DISTRICT IN RESPECT OF LITERACY IN PAKISTAN IS 26TH AND IN WEST PAKISTAN 14TH.

EDUCATIONL LEVELS

THE EDUCATIONAL LEVELS OF THE LITERATE SECTIONS OF THE POPULATION IS FURTHER ANALYSED BELOW:-

.

TOTAL

MALES

FEMALES

POST GRADUATES

222

216

6

GRADUATES

408

384

24

UNDER GRADUATES

811

757

54

MATRIC

6,129

5,851

278

MIDDLE

15,485

14,509

916

PRIMARY

41,800

37,409

4,391

BELOW PRIMARY

29,964

25,520

4,444

THE FIGURES OF PERSONS HOLDING PROFESSIONAL OR TECHNICAL CERTIFICATES, DIPLOMAS AND DEGREES WERE AS FOLLOWING:-

. TOTAL MALES FEMALES
EDUCATION 1,703 1,496 207
MEDICINE 319 294 25
ENGINEERING 300 298 2
AGRICULTURE 155 151 4
COMMERCE 22 22
LAW 55 54 1
OTHER PROFESSION 62 62

DRESS AND FOOD

THE COMMON DRESS OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTION OF THE POPULATION CONSISTS OF A SHIRT, LOCALLY CALLED A CHOLA, A LOIN CLOTH WHICH IS CALLED MANJHLA, WRAPPED AROUND THE LEGS AND TURBAN CALLED PATKA.. THE MEN USUALLY CARRY A CHADAR OVER THEIR SHOULDERS WITH WHICH THEY COVER THEIR HEAD DURING THE HARD SUMMER DAYS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST SUN-STROKE.. THEY COVER THEIR BODY WITH THE CHADAR DURING WINTER MONTHS TO PROTECT TEMSELVES AGAINST THE SEVER COLD.. THE VILLAGE FOLKS WEAR THE SAME CLOTHING DURING THE HARD SUMMER DAYS AND THE EXTREME COLD WEATHER.. THE WOMEN FOLK OF THE VILLAGE ALSO WEAR A CHOLA A CHADAR ROUND THEIR LEGS AND DOPATA OVER THEIR HEADS..


AND 15 FEET BROAD IS A SINGLE DOOR IN THE CENTRE OF THE FRONT WALL. INSIDE THE HOUSE A NUMBER OF KALHOTAS AND EARTHEN CYLINDERS ARE KEPT FOR THE STORAGE OF GRAIN. IN THE BACK WALL FACING THE DOOR, THERE ARE GENERALLY ONE OR TWO ORNAMENTAL NICHES, CALLED KAMAS OR PARCHATI, ON THWICH ARE PLACED PLATES (THALIS) WHICH SERVE AS AN ADORNMENT FOR THE ROOM BESIDES BEING PLACE OF STORAGE.THE BEAMS OF THE ROOFS ARE ALWAYS SUPPORTED BY WOODEN PROPS (THAMBI OR TUKKA) EVEN WHEN THEY ARE LARGE ENOUGH TO REST ON THE WALLS, WHICH ARE OF MUD AND CANNOT SUPPORT THE BEAMS. THE COTS OF THE FAMILY ARE ARRANGED AGAINST THE BACK WALL. IN THE CENTRE OF THE ROOM THERE IS A FIRE-PLACE AROUND WHICH THE FAMILY SITS BASKING AGAINST FIRE IN WINTER. THE SMOKE HAS NO OTHER OUTLET EXCEPT THE ONE DOOR IN THE FRONT WALL. IN THE ROOM ARE ALSO KEPT ARE AGRICULTURAL. IMPLEMENTS..
THERE IS NO FURNITURE IN MOST HOUSES TO DECORATE THE VILLAGE HUTS EXCEPT THE COTS. THE WELL TO DO PEOPLE HOWEVER, KEEP A FEW CHAIRS AND TABLES, SO MUCH FOR THEIR OWN USE AS FOR THE USE OF GUESTS AND VISITORS OF DIGNITARIES WHO HAPPEN TO VISIT THE VILLAGE. THE HOUSES IN THE VILLAGES ARE USUALLY GROUPED TOGETHER.
THE HOUSES IN THE TOWN DO NOT DIFFER MATERIALLY FROM THE HOUSES IN OTHER TOWNS OF WEST PAKISTAN AND ARE MADE OF BRICKS, CEMENT AND STEEL, WITH MODERN CONVENIENCES AND SANITATION.

MAIN AND SUBSIDIARY OCCUPATION

THE MAIN OCCUPATION OF THE PEOPLE OF THE DISTRICT IS AGRICULTURE AS MORE THAN 80 PER CENT OF THE POPULATION LIVES ON AGRICULTURE. CATTLE AND SHEEP REARING IS THE MAIN OCCUPATION OF THE PEOPLE OF THE THAL AREA, WHERE LARGE TRACTS OF LAND ARE STILL BARREN AND CULTIVATION IS ONLY A SUBSIDIARY OCCUPATION. IN OTHER PARTS OF THE DISTRICT PASTORAL OCCUPATION IS THE SUBSIDIARY OCCUPATION. AS AGRICULTURE GENERALLY REQUIRES CONCERNED EFFORTS OF THE WHOLE FAMILY, THE WOMEN-FOLK AND THE CHILDREN ALSO SHARE THE WORK IN THE FIELD. THE SMALLER BOYS GENERALLY LOOK AFTER THE GRAZING OF CATTLE IN THE FIELD. THE WOMAN-FOLK WITH THE EXCEPTION OF KHATTAK WOMEN WHO DO THE ACTUAL PLOUGHING WORK ONLY ASSIST THEIR MEN-FOLK IN THE HARVESTING OF CROPS, AND CLEARANCE OF SHRUBS IN THE FIELDS ONLY. THERE ARE NO FIXED HOURS OF WORK FOR THE AGRICULTURISTS, AND WORKING HOURS DEPEND ON THE NATURE OF WORK TO BE DONE. THE AGRICULTURIST AND HIS FAMILY REMAIN AT THEIR WORK FOR AT LEAST 12 HOURS IN THE DAY AT THE TIME OF SOWING AND HARVESTING CROPS. IN THE AREAS DEPENDING UPON RAIN FOR CULTIVATION THE AGRICULTURIST REMAINS IDLE FOR AT LEAST 8 MONTHS IN THE YEAR. THIS IS DUE TO LACK OF ALTERNATIVE EMPLOYMENT, BUT WITH THE SETTING UP OF INDUSTRIES IN THE THAL SEASONAL UNEMPLOYMENT IS DECREASING THOUGHT AT A VERY SLOW RATE. AT THE TIME OF HARVESTING THE PEOPLE FROM THE DRAUGHT STRICKEN AREAS USUALLY MIGRATE TO PLACES WHERE THEY CAN FIND WORK AS LABOURERS IN HARVESTING THE CROPS. WEAVERS FORM A CONSIDERABLE CLASS. THEIR WOMEN-FOLK SHARE A CONSIDERABLE PORTION OF THE WORK, AND HENCE THE NUMBER OF FEMALE WORKERS IS LARGER IN THIS PROFESSION THAN IN MANY OTHER INDUSTRIES, EXCEPT AGRICULTURE AND THE HERDKEEPING. THE WEAVER WOMEN PREPARE THE WARP AND REEL THE THREAD FOR THE WOOF. GINNING AND SPINNING OF COTTON IS GENERALLY DONE AT ALL ODD HOURS BY WOMEN OF ALL CLASSES. THE WOMEN-FOLK IN THE VILLAGES ALSO DO THE CORN GRINDING. AMONG THE MALIARS (ARAIN) WHO ARE GROWERS OF VEGETABLES, THE WOMEN DO MORE WORK THAN THE MEN; THE MARKETING OF THE PRODUCE IS ENTIRELY DONE BY THEM.. FANS AND MATS OF PATHA LEAVES ARE LARGELY MADE BY WOMEN, ESPECIALLY PIRACHA WOMEN OF KALABAGH.. LABOURERS ARE EMPLOYED IN CONSIDERABLE NUMBERS, AT THE STONE QUARRY NEAR SWANS, AT THE SALT PITS AT KALABAGH, COAL MINES AT MAKARWAL, IRON ORE MINES AT KALABAGH, CEMENT AND DYES FACTORIES AT DAUDKHEL AND TEXTILE MILLS AT QUAIDABAD AND BHAKKAR.

INFLUENCE OF RELIGION

FESTIVALS ,FAIRS, LITERATURE

FOLK LORE.

THE ENTIRE POPULATION WITH THE EXCEPTION OF A FEW CHRISTIANS IS MUSLIM.. THE MAJORITY OF THE MUSLIMS ARE SUNIS, AND ARE VERY PARTICULAR IN THE MATTER OF PRAYERS AND FASTING DURING THE MONTH OF RAMAZAN.. THE LOCAL RULERS OF THE AREA, DURING THE PERIOD OF MUSLIM RULE WERE SUNNI MUSLIMS, AND EXERCISED GREAT INFLUENCE ON THE PEOPLE IN THE TRACT.. THE SYEDS ARE HEREDITARY SHIAS, THOUGH SOME OF THEM PROFESS TO BE SUNNIS FOR THE CONSIDERATION OF THEIR SUNNI DISCIPLES.. THE SHIAS ARE FOUND LARGELY IN THE BHAKKAR TEHSIL.. THE SHIAS ARE NOT AS PARTICULAR ABOUT PRAYERS AND FASTS AS SUNNIS BUT THEY OBSERVE MOURNING DURING MUSHARRAM.. THE SUNNIS HAVE GREAT FAITH IN SHRINES OF SAINTS AND IN THE EFFICACY OF PILGRIMAGES TO THE GRAVES OF THE SAINTS.. THE ILLITERATE SECTION OF THE PEOPLE HAVE GREAT FAITH IN SPELLS AND CHARMS.. THE SUNNIS BELIEVE IN PIRS AND MURSHIDS, BUT THE SHIAS HAVE NO FAITH IN THEM, IN THEIR OPINIONS THERE CAN BE NO PIR OR IMAM AFTER HAZRAT ALI.

………… TO THE SUNNIS, THE TOMB OF EVERY PIR IS A ZIARAT, AND THE MORE CELEBRATED THE PIR, THE LARGER THE NUMBER OF THE PILGRIM, TO HIS ZAIRAT.. TREES OR CLUSTERS OF TREES, CALLED JHANGIS UNDER WHICH A FAQIR IS KNOWN TO HAVE LIVED FOR SOMETIME, ARE HELD SACRED AND NO ONE DARE TOUCH A BRANCH OF SUCH TREES.. STORIES ARE TOLD AND BELIEVED OF PERSONS WHO ON DOING SO, HAVE COME TO A VIOLENT END. THERE IS AND INTERESTING STORY OF RECENT TIMES.. THE THAL DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY, NEAR THE COMMONWEALTH LIVE-STOCK FARMS AT GHULAMAN, INSTALLED A NUMBER OF TUBE-WELLS FOR BRINGING THE BARREN LANDS UNDER CULTIVATION.. A TUBE-WELL HAPPENED TO BE INSTALLED NEAR A SOLITARY GRAVE BELIEVED TO BE OF A SAINT.. THE SAINT DID NOT LIKE THE PEACE OF THE AREA TO BE DISTURBED AND INSPITE OF BEST EFFORTS, THE TUBE-WELL DID NOT WORK, ALTHOUGH THE OTHER TUBE-WELLS IN THE VICINITY ARE WORKING NORMALLY, AND THE THAL DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY HAD TO ABANDON THE MACHINERY ALREADY INSTALLED.

SUPERSTITIONS

THE PEOPLE OF THE THIS DISTRICT ARE VERY CREDULOUS REGARDING THE POWER OF EVIL SPIRITS TO DO THEM AND PUT GREAT FAITH IN THE EFFICACY OF CHARMS IN COUNTERACTING SUCH EVIL INFLUENCES.. THIS IS WHY THE PIRS AND FAQIRS ARE ENABLED TO OBTAIN SUCH GREAT INFLUENCE AMONG THEM.THE SUPERSTITION MOST PREVALENT CONCERNS THE CAPACITY OF PERSONS AND ESPECIALLY WOMEN, TO BECOME PROSSESSED BY JINS OR EVIL SPIRITS.. HYSTERIA WHICH IS COMMON AMONGST UNMARRIED WOMEN LED TO THE IDEA OF A WOMAN BECOMING POSSESSED BY A JIN, BUT NOW EVERY WOMAN WHO SUFFERS FROM HYSTERIA, EPILEPSY, STERILITY AND OTHER SIMILAR DERANGEMENTS, INCLUDING NEURALGIA, RHEUMATISM AND PARALYSIS, IS REGARDED AS HARBOURING A JIN, AND THE TREATMENT IN SUCH CASES TAKES THE FORM OF CASTING THE JIN OUT..

THIS PROCESS IS A MOST EXCITING ONE, SO MUCH SO INDEED, THAT IT IS VERY COMMON FOR WOMEN WHO ARE SUFFERING FROM NO DISEASE AT ALL, TO PRETEND TO BE UNDER EVIL INFLUENCES, IN ORDER TO JUSTIFY THEM IN VISITING A SHRINE AND GOING THROUGH THE PROCESS OF CASTING OUT THE JIN.. MEN, NO LESS THAN WOMEN, ARE SUPPOSED TO POSSESSED BY JINS, WHEN THEY ARE REALLY SUFFERING FROM CHRONIC DISEASES.. THE PROCESS OF CASTING OUT A JIN IS INTERESTING.. THE PATIENT.S HEAD IS FIRST WASHED AND THE HAIR ANOINTED WITH SCENTED OIL.. PROPERLY DRESSED, THE PERSON ATTENDS A SPECIFIED PLACE, WHERE MUSICIANS ARE IN WAITING.. INCENSE IS BURNT AND MUSIC IS PLAYED, THE DRUM BEING BEATEN IN A MANNER OF PECULIAR TO THE OCCASION.. THE PATIENT THEN BEGINS TO SHAKE HIS OR HER HEAD, AND VIOLENTLY SWINGS IT ROUND, KEEPING TUNE WITH THE DRUM, UNTIL HE OR SHE DROPS EXHAUSTED.. BY THIS PROCEDURE THE JIN IS SUPPOSED TO HAVE BEEN EXPELLED FOR A TIME ONLY, BUT NOT FOR GOOD, AND THE PERFORMANCE HAS AGAIN TO BE REPEATED, COUPLED WITH OFFERINGS AT THE SHRINE, WHERE IT TAKES PLACE, AFTER THE LAPSE OF MORE OR LESS DEFINITE INTERVALS.. THE EXCITEMENT AND VIOLENT SHAKING OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM MAY DO SOME GOOD TO THE HYSTERICAL PATIENTS, BUT MUCH OF THE GOOD DONE BY THE PROCESS IS ALSO, NO DOUBT, EFFECTED IN THE MANNER OF A FAITH CURE.. THE BELIEF IN JINS IS HOWEVER, DECLINING WITH THE SPREAD OF EDUCATION AND ENLIGHTENMENT OF THE PEOPLE.

DAM (BLOWING) AND DARUD (READING FROM A SACRED BOOK) ARE ALSO COMMON FORMS OF CURING DISEASES.. PERSONS SUFFERING FROM DISEASE VISIT A PIR, WHO READS VERSES FROM THE QURAN OR KALMA FROM SOME OTHER SACRED BOOK AND BLOWS ON THE AFFECTED PART OF THE BODY, IF THE DISEASE IS NOT SERIOUS, A KNIFE BLADE OR A PIECE OF STICK, OR A TWIG, IS PASSED SEVERAL TIMES FROM THE DISEASED LIMB TO THE GROUND WHILE THE KALIMA IS RECITED. THE OPERATOR ALSO BLOWS ON THE LIMB FROM TIME TO TIME.. AT THE END THE KNIFE OR TWIG IS STUCK INTO THE GROUND OR LINES ARE DRAWN ON THE GROUND WITH IT-A PROCESS KNOWN AS JHARU.NAILS ARE SOMETIMES DRIEVEN INTO A BLOCK OF WOOD, OR TREE, IN ORDER TO REMOVE TOOTHACHE. AT SWANS IN THE MIANWALI TEHSIL THERE IS A TREE, WHICH IS VISITED BY COUNTLESS PEOPLE FOR THIS PURPOSE, AND WHICH IS STUDDED WITH NAILS, DRIVEN INTO IT BY SUFFERERS OF DENTAL TROUBLES.

THE PIRS AND OTHER HOLYMEN DRIVE A ROARING TRADE BY SELLING CHARMS CALLED PHULL AND CONSECRATED THREAD CALLED GANDAS.. THE FORMER CONSIST OF CHARM WRITTEN ON PAPER WHICH IS FOLDED AND SEWN UP IN CLOTH, SOMETIMES PLACED IN A SILVER AMULET.. IT IS THEN WORN ROUND THE NECKS OR ARMS, OR ON THE HEAD, OR BY WOMEN IN THEIR HAIR.. THESE CHARMS EITHER FULFIL THE SAME OBJECT AS LOVE PHILTER OR ELSE THEY ARE INTENDED TO ENSURE SUCCESS GENERALLY, OR IN SOME PARTICULAR UNDERTAKING.. THEY ARE ALSO USED AS A CURE FOR AILMENTS, VARYING FROM HEADACHE TO STERILITY.. A SPECIAL FORM OF CHARM, CALLED MADHANI DA PHULL IS USED TO AUGMENT THE OUT-TURN OF BUTTER FROM CURDS.. IT IS TIED TO THE CHURN AND THIS IS SUPPOSED TO HAVE THE EFFECT OF ATTRACTING THE BUTTER FROM CURDS.. IT IS TIED TO THE CHURN AND THIS IS SUPPOSED TO HAVE THE EFFECT OF ATTRACTING THE BUTTER FROM NEIGHBOURING CHURNS.. ON THE RIVER BANKS IT IS CUSTOMARY FOR THE WOMEN TO GO EARLY IN THE MORNING TO THE RIVERSIDE AND CHURN MILK WITH THEIR CHURN PLACED NECK DEEP IN WATER. THIS IS SUPPOSED TO ENHANCE THE EFFECT OF THE CHARM.GANDAS ARE MADE OF COTTON OR SILK THREAD, PALM LEAVES OR GUT.THE HOLYMAN TIES A CERTAIN NUMBER OF KNOTS IN THE CHARM READING SACRED VERSES AS HE DOES SO THE GANDA, SO FASHIONED, IS BELIEVED TO BE EFFICACIOUS IN CURING OR PREVENTING DISEASES IN ANY PART OF THE PERSON ROUND WHICH IT IS TIED.

BIRTH AND DEATHS

AT THE TIME OF A WOMANS CONFINEMENT, IF THE PROCESS OF DELIVERY BECOMES COMPLICATED, A SHEEP, A GOAT, OR A COW, ACCORDING TO THE MEANS OF THE FAMILY, IS SACRIFIED AND THE MEAT IS GIVEN AWAY IN CHARITY.. GUR IS DISTRIBUTED IF THE BABY HAPPENS TO BE A BOY.. AFTER THE BABY IS WASHED AND WRAPPED IN CLEAN CLOTHING, THE MULLAH WHISPERS ALLA-O-AKBAR INTO ITS EARS.. THE BABY IS THEN GIVEN A NAME.. A KNIFE IS ALWAYS KEPT NEAR A BABY IN ORDER TO REPEL EVIL SPIRITS. ON THE SEVENTH DAY, AFTER THE BIRTH, THE BABY.S HEAD IS SHAVED.ON THE FIRST FRIDAY AFTER THE BIRTH A SHEEP IS SLAUGHTERED AND THE MUTTON IS DISTRIBUTED TO THE POOR. THIS FUNCTION IS CALLED AQIQA.THE DEATH CEREMONIES ARE SIMILAR TO OTHER AREAS.THE GRAVE IS USUALLY DUG BY THE PROFESSIONAL GRAVE-DIGGERS.IT IS DUG NORTH AND SOUTH AND WHEN A CERTAIN DEPTH IS REACHED, A NICHE IS MADE TO THE WEST CALLED SAMI, FOR RECEIVING THE BODY. THE MULLAH PREPARES THE SHROUD OF WHITE LONG CLOTH AND BATHERS THE DEAD BODY. HE TAKES AWAY THE CLOTHES LAST WORN BY THE DECEASED. FUNERAL PRAYERS ARE THEN HELD AND THE DEAD BODY IS CARRIED TO THE GRAVE-YARD FOR BURIAL.ON THE THIRD-DAY THE QUL KHAWANI TAKES PLACE.THE RELATIVES, FRIENDS AND NEIGHBOURS ASSEMBLE AND RECITE THE HOLY QURAN. ON THE NEXT THURSDAY THE QURAN IS READ AGAIN AND PRAYERS ARE HELD FOR THE PEACE OF THE DEPARTED SOUL.

BETROTHALS AND MARRIAGES

THE CONTRACT OF BETROTHAL IS MADE BY THE FATHER OF THE GIRL, AND IN HIS ABSENCE, BY THE GRANDFATHER OR BROTHER, USUALLY THE ELDEST BROTHER. IF THE GIRL HAS NO BROTHER OR FATHER, THEN THE MOTHER AND THE HALF BROTHER IF ANY, CAN ARRANGE THE BETROTHAL. IN THE ABSENCE OF THE FATHER, THE BROTHER AND UNCLE (FATHER.S BROTHER), THE MOTHER USUALLY ENTERS INTO A CONTRACT OF BETROTHAL. AFTER THE MOTHER, THE LEGAL THEIR, WHOEVER HE MAY BE, CAN GIVE THE CONSENT. AN ADULT MALE CAN CONSENT TO HIS OWN BETROTHAL, BUT ORDINARILY HIS FATHER ACTS ON HIS BEHALF ; IN NO CASE, HOWEVER, CAN A FEMALE, WHETHER A MINOR OR AN ADULT, ENTERS INTO A CONTRACT OF BETROTHAL ON HER OWN BEHALF.. ONLY IN THE ABSENCE OF HER FATHER, MOTHER, AND OTHER LEGAL HEIRS, CAN A FEMALE CONSENT OF THE FATHER OR THE MOTHER AS THE CASE MAY BE, IS NECESSAY TO THE VALIDITY OF BETROTHAL EXCEPT IN THE CASE OF BETROTHAL EXCEPT IN THE CASE OF BETROTHAL OF AN ADULT.

THE GENERAL CUSTOM, AT THE BETROTHAL CEREMONY, IS FOR THE BOYS GUARDIAN OR SOME RELATIVES OR FRIENDS TO GO TO THE GIRLS HOUSE TAKING SOME CLOTHS AND ORNAMENTS FOR THE GIRL AND SOME SWEETS AND MAHNDI. THEY ARE RECEIVED BY THE GIRL.S GUARDIAN AND RELATIVES AND BETROTHAL IS FORMALLY ANNOUNCED. SWEETS AND MAHNDI ARE DISTRIBUTED AND THE BETROTHAL IS CONSIDERED COMPLETE. THE BETROTHAL IS REVOCABLE AT ANY TIME BEFORE THE MARRIAGE.

THE BINDING CEREMONY WHICH COMPLETES THE MARRIAGE, IS THE NIKAH. THE CHIEF FORMALITY FOR COMPLETION OF THE MARRIAGE IS ASKING TH CONSENT OF PARTIES. (IJAZ-O-QABUL) BEFORE TWO WITNESSES, THE FIXING OF THE DOWER (HAQ MAHAR).THE USUAL PROCEDURE AT THE WEDDING IS THAT THE MARRIAGE PROCESSION CONSISTING OF THE BRIDE-GROOM, HIS RELATIVES AND FRIENDS, GOES TO THE BRIDES HOUSE USUALLY IN THE EVENING WHEN THE NIKAH TAKES PLACE. IF THE MARRIAGE IS TO BE CONSUMMATED, THE BRIDE AND THE BRIDE-GROOM AREDRESSED IN SUITS OF CLOTHES PRESENTED BY THE OTHER PARTY.SWEETS AND COINS ARE DISTRIBUTED AND THE PROCESSION RETURNS HOME WITH THE BRIDE GENERALLY AFTER STAYING AT THE BRIDES HOUSE OVERNIGHT. THE MARRIAGE OF A SON IS CONSIDERED TO BE AUSPICIOUS FOR THE PARENTS AND THEY LOOSE NO TIME TO MARRY THEIR SONS, AS SOON AS HE ATTAINS PUBERTY. THE MARRIAGEABLE AGE FOR THE MALE IS USUALLY 18 YEARS AND FOR THE GIRLS A COUPLE OF YEARS LESS.THE MARRIAGES AMONGST CHRISTIAN USUALLY FOLLOW THE SAME CEREMONIES EXCEPT FOR THE RELIGIOUS CEREMONY WHICH IS PERFORMED BY A PRIEST.

ANUSEMENTS

THE PEOPLE OF THE DISTRICT ARE FOUND OF GAMES AND SPORTS.THE MOST POPULAR FORMS OF SPORT CONSIST IN TENT-PEGGING (NEZA BAZI OR CHAPLI) AND A GAME CALLED DODA OR PIR KAUDI.THIS LAST MENTIONED TWO GAMES, WHICH OUT DO TENT-PEGGING IN POPULARITY, ARE ESSENTIALLY A YOUNG MAN,S GAME.. TERMS ARE FORMED AND PRELIMINARIES ARRANGED.. IN DODA A YOUTH GOES OUT SOME 40 YARDS TOWARDS THE CENTRE OF THE AREA WHERE HE TURNS AND FACES A PAIR FROM THE OPPOSING SIDE.. HE IS THEN PURSUED



AND WELL-KNOWN PLACES OF PILGRIMAGE, THE MORE WELL-KNOWN OF WHICH ARE THE SHRINES OF MANSA NATH JOGI AND OF SHEIKH BULAND SAHIB AT PAIKHEL; OF GAJJAN SHAH AT SILWAN; OF TOBRI SIRKAPP AT MUSA KHEL; OF SHEIKH TURAT DHOK MUHAMMAD KHAN, OF MIAN NUR MUHAMMAD AT MANDA KHEL; OF SHAH JAMAL AT KAMAR MASHANI; OF GUL FAQIR AT ISA KHEL; OF BAWA NANUN AT KALLURKOT, OF MAULAVI KHAN MUHAMMAD SAHIB AT MAIBAL; OF TAYYIB SULTAN AT KOTAL JAM; OF PIR ASBAB AT THE VILLAGE OF THAT NAME; OF SULTAN KERORI SAHIB AT CHHINA; OF SAYYAD AMIRAN SHAH AT KHAWWAR KALAN; OF HAJI HUSSAIN SHAH AT THE VILLAGE OF THAT NAME; AND OF PIR BAKHTIYAR AT CHAP SANDI.

SHIKAR WITH LONG DOGS IS MOST POPULAR


Comments

MIANWALI VISTA — 25 Comments

  1. pics are good but i think the pics from all Mianwali should be collected n pasted………..the pics showing our culture,dresses,foods,drinks,markets,typical village houses n modern city houses,wedding dances,funeral carrying,arms carrying,special mianwali shoes etc etc.
    participation of many many mianwalians should be made sure by some means.
    thanks

  2. YOUR VALUABLE WORDS : Thank u ,i m glad to see ur work. u r great, i m also workinq about the history of isakhel. i need ur help. can u?

  3. AoA, Bhai a site bana k tusa Isa khel d bao khidmat kiti hay.
    Regards,Fayyaz M. Raza-United Arab Emirates=Cell No. +971 55 9469837

  4. Salam to all my dear citizen.
    ap ki is kawish ku dakh kar dil buhat khush huwa hai, ALLAH ap ku mazeed tariqi day aur hamary peary city isakhel ku bhi always qaim daim rakhay AMEEN.

  5. aslam o alekum mene ap sub teem ko sallam pesh kirta hono jo ap ne humary upny isa kheal koo word ke liy pesh kia ya dunya ko batya ke hum her chez mene pechy hene mager is sit pir hum kadam hoo giy hene AAllha ap ko mazze acha kirny ke hummat deeee Aameen

  6. aslam o alekum all teem koo sallam itny door beth kir isa kheal ke yad tazza hooo jaty heeee m aslam from kuwait

  7. ASALAM-O-ALIKUM
    HERE EVERY THING IS GOOD BUT VERY SHORT I AM FROM QUETTA SO THERE SHOULD BE MORE THING LIKE PICTURES OF DARYA , CASHMA AND OTHER BEAUTIFUL PLACES ETC

  8. A.A
    I LIKE THE SITE OF ESAKHEL VERY MUCH…. THIS IS THE ONLY REPRESENTATOR OF PEOPLE OF ESA KHEL ON WEB. I SOLUTE THE MANAGMENT OF THE SITE WHOM SHOW THE ORGINAL PICTURE
    .

  9. KIA BAAT HA……NICE WORK
    ALL THE BEST………ALLAH AP KO KAMYAB FARMAYE.
    ~~~~~~~ GOOD LUCK ~~~~~~

  10. thx brother, nice work ,, but we know isa khal is not complate with out the name of attullaha khan isakhalvi and tlako chand was grate poeat of land Isa khal
    thx

    00923023955688

  11. my forefather’s belonged to village panj grain , tehsil bhakkhar , district mianwali
    i would love to see photographs of my village .
    i will be thankful to the individual who will post or mail photographs of my village.
    regards,
    ashwini kumar wadhwa

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