CHAKRALA – NAMAL-KALRI-RIKHI

CHAKRALA IS THE OLDEST AND THE LARGEST VILLAGE A SEAT OF HINDU TRIBE CHIKAR , OF MIANWALI IT WAS CAPTURED BY LOCAL MUSLIMS IN THE 13TH CENTURY BY THE AID OF INVADERS FROM THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES. CHAKRALA IS ALSO A UNION COUNCIL (ADMINISTRATIVE SUBDIVISION) OF MIANWALI TEHSIL AND IS LOCATED 10 MILES (16 KM) AWAY FROM THE MIANWALI TALAGANG ROAD AT 32°6’0N 72°22’0E . THE AREA IS HAS BEEN PREDOMINANTLY INHABITED BY AWAN TRIBES FOR THE LAST SIX CENTURIES

IT IS THE POLITICAL AND CULTURAL HUB OF THE AREA CALLED AWANKARI. ITS BOUNDARY IN THE SOUTH AND WEST IS THE WATERSHED LINE OF THE SALT RANGE. THE RIVER GAMBHIR IS AT ITS NORTH-EASTERN BOUNDARY.

VILLAGE CHAKRALA IS ABOUT SEVEN CENTURIES OLD. THE AREA IS DOMINENTLY POPULATED BY AWAN TRIBES.CHAKRALA. IT WAS FOUNDED BY NARAPEER ABOUT SEVEN CENTURIES AGO. EVEN TODAY, NEWLY WED COUPLES VISIT THE SHRINE OF NARAPEER FOR PRAYERS.

CHAKRALA IS LOCATED , OVER THE POTOHAR PLATEAU. THE MOST UNDER DEVELOPED AREA OF THE DISTRICT, IS COLLECTIVELY CALLED AWANKARI, AND COMPRISES OF FOUR UNION COUNCILS:-

CHAKRALA

BAN HAFIZ JEE

THAMEWALI

NAMAL

MIANWALI-RAWALPINDI ROAD CROSSES THE AREA FROM RIKHI TO BAN HAFIZ JEE, A SPAN OF ABOUT 11KM. LINK ROADS TO KALRI, THAMEWALI, CHAH UGRAL, CHAKRALA AND NAMAL EMERGE FROM THIS INTER-DISTRICT ROAD TO MAKE THE NETWORK OF TRANSPROTATION. QUAIDABAD, WAN BHACHRAN, CHHIDRU, MUSAKHEL, BORIKHEL, SWANS, GHUNDI, PAIKHEL, ISKANDERABAD, MARI INDUS AND KALABAGH LIE TO THE WEST ACCROSS THE SALT RANGE. KOT GULLA, KANATTIAN, PACHNAND AND KOT QAZI ARE TO THE SOUTH ACCROSS THE RIVER GAMBHIR. TO THE EAST, THE AREA IS LINKED WITH ROADS TO DARBATTA, DANDA SHAH BILAWAL, CHAKKI SHEIKH JEE AND LAWA. ANOTHER ROAD LINK IS TOWARDS SOUTH THROUGH THE SAKEASR HILL-TOP TO THE SOON VALEY AND QUAIDABAD. MANY TRADITIONAL KACCHA ROADS LINK THE AREA WITH THE VILLAGES TO THE NORTH.

SOCIETY 

PRIMARILY THE SOCIETY WAS AGRICULTURAL. THE PROFESSIONS INCULDED FARMERS AND/OR SHEPHARDS.

NORMS

MOST OF THE CULTURAL AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITY REVOLVED ARROUND FARMING AND CATTLE.SHRINES OF SPIRITUAL LEADERS WERE MAIN FOCI OF URS & MELAS. THESE TRADITIONAL ACTIVITIES PERSIST AS SUCH.. SHRINE OF MAULANA ALLAH YAR KHAN AT MURSHADABAD IS SEAT OF A WELL ORGANISED AND POPULAR ISLAMIC SPIRITUAL ACTIVITY ATTENDED BY HUNDREDS FROM ALL OVER PAKISTAN.

SPORTS

IN THE PAST, IN THE SEASONS WHEN AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES WERE AT THEIR MINIMUM, THERE USED TO BE FESTIVALS OF KABADDI AND KUSHTI(BAKKI). CHAPLI WAS VERY POPULAR GAME PLAYED BY THE HORSE RIDERS.

THE 20TH TO 22RD DAYS OF INDIAN CALENDAR MONTH OF BHADUN IS BELIEVED BY THE FARMERS AS CHITRAN-MACHITRAN. IT IS BELIEVED TO BE THE SEVEREST PERIOD OF THE SEASON AND HERALDS DRAUGHT IF THERE IS NO RAIN IN THESE DAYS. CELESTIALLY IT COINCIDES WITH THE RISE OF PLEIADES NEBULA IN THE EAST, AND THE ENTRY OF THE SUN INTO THE HIND LEG OF LEO COSTELLATION. THE PERIOD LIES IN 5TH TO 7TH OF SEPTEMBER.

FAMOUS TRIBES OF CHAKRALA

AWANS

QAZI .GHAZI KHEL .LIDHAL .TUGAL .NAWAB KHEL .MALIK

OTHERS

SHILIAL .JOLAY .KAKU KHEL .TOKA .INSARY .MUSLIM SHEIKH .MUGHAL .ARAIN .KUMHAR .GHUGAL .LOHAR .COBBLER .WASHERMAN .QASAB .SAND  .CHUGHA .MAWAL .SARJAL

FAMOUS PERSONALITIES  OF CHAKRALA

 

QAZI MUHAMMAD SHAH (LORD OF CHAKRALA) . MALIK AHMED KHAN (1ST SESSION JUDGE OF MIANWALI) .MALIK MUHAMMAD KHAN (LORD OF CHAKRALA) .MAJ.MALIK MUZAFFER KHAN(1ST ARMY OFFICER OF CHAKRALA) .HAJI MALIK MUHAMMAD YOUSAF (VETNARY DOCTOR)

POLITITIONS OF CHAKRALA

.MALIK TAJ MUHAMMAD KUND .MALIK TARIQ MASOOD KUND .MALIK KHALIL AWAN .DR TAHIR AWAN .MALIK MUHAMMAD AFZAL KHAN

ISLAMIC SCHOLORS OF

CHAKRALA

MULANA ALLAH YAR KHAN

MAULANA  ALLAH YAR KHAN WAS BORN IN CHAKRALA, A REMOTE VILLAGE OF MIANWALI DISTRICT OF PAKISTAN, IN 1904. HE COMPLETED HIS RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN 1934. THE SAME YEAR, HE MET SHAYKH ABDUL RAHIM, WHO TOOK HIM TO THE SHRINE OF SHAYKH ALLAH DEEN MADNI. BY DIVINE WILL HIS SPIRITUAL CONNECTION WAS IMMEDIATELY ESTABLISHED WITH THE SAINT OF THE 10TH CENTURY HIJRA (SIXTEENTH CENTURY CE) AND HE STARTED RECEIVING SPIRITUAL BENEFICENCE. HIS SUBLIME EDUCATION IN SUFISM, SIGNIFYING PROGRESSIVE SPIRITUAL GROWTH AND ADVANCEMENT, CONTINUED FOR ABOUT TWENTY-FIVE YEARS. IN 1962 HE WAS DIRECTED TO UNDERTAKE THE PROPAGATION OF PROPHETIC BLESSINGS – A NOBLE MISSION THAT HE ACCOMPLISHED WITH SINGULAR ZEAL AND DEDICATION FOR A PERIOD SPANNING HALF A CENTURY. ANYBODY WHO VISITED HIM WAS DULY REWARDED WITH A SHARE OF SPIRITUAL BLISS COMMENSURATE WITH HIS/HER SINCERITY AND CAPACITY. SHAYKH ALLAH YAR KHAN’S MISSION PRODUCED MEN AND WOMEN OF DEEP SPIRITUAL VISION AND EMINENCE.

HE AUTHORED EIGHTEEN BOOKS, THE MOST DISTINGUISHED BEING DALAEL US SULOOK, (AN OBJECTIVE APPRAISAL OF THE SUBLIME SUFI PATH), HAYAT-E-BARZAKHIAH (LIFE BETWEEN DEATH AND ESURRECTION), HAYAT-UN-NABI (PROPHET’S LIFE IN BARZAKH), AND ISRAR UL HARAMAIN (SECRETS OF THE TWO HOLY MOSQUES). HE WAS UNDOUBTEDLY THE MOST DISTINGUISHED SUFI SAINT OF THE MUSLIM UMMAH AND A REVIVER OF THE NAQSHBANDIAH OWAISIAH ORDER.

HE DIED ON 18 FEBRUARY 1984 AT THE AGE OF 80. HIS SOLE MISSION WAS TO LEAVE BEHIND AS MANY EXAMPLES OF TRUE MUSLIMS AS POSSIBLE, IMBUED WITH THE SPIRIT OF CONTINUING HIS MISSION.

QAZI QAMER DIN .QAZI KALEEM ULLAH .QAZI SYED AMIR .QAZI ZAFAR ZABIH .HAJI MUHAMMAD ABDULLA .MOLVI ABAID ULLAH .MAULANA MUHAMMAD NAWAZ

LORDS OF CHAKRALA

.MALIK AFZAL KHAN OF THAMEWALI .MALIK ABDUL RAZAQ .MALIK ALLAH YAR MALIK MUHAMMAD KHAN .MALIK MUHAMMAD IQBAL(NAWAN)

NAMAL

NAMAL IS A TOWN AND UNION COUNCIL, AN ADMINISTRATIVE SUBDIVISION, OF MIANWALI DISTRICT IN THE PUNJAB PROVINCE OF PAKISTAN. IT IS PART OF MIANWALI TEHSIL.

THE 1915 GAZETTEER OF MIANWALI, IN A SECTION ENTITLED “ARCHITECTURAL OBJECTS AND REMAIN-RUINS OF SIRKAPP FORT”, DESCRIBED THE NAMAL AREA AS FOLLOWS OVERLOOKING THE VILLAGE SITE OF NAMMAL IN THE KHUDRI IS A RIDGE OF GREAT NATURAL STRENGTH, CUT OFF ON THREE SIDES BY HILL TORRENTS. ON THE TOP OF THIS RIDGE THERE ARE EXTENSIVE RUINS OF WHAT IS SAID TO HAVE BEEN THE STRONGHOLD OF SIRKAPP, RAJA OF THE COUNTRY , WHO WAS A CONTEMPORARY OF RAJA RISALU OF SIALKOT, BY WHOM HE WAS VANQUISHED. THE OUTER WALL OF THE FORT STILL EXISTS IN PART IN A DILAPIDATED CONDITION, BUT THE ENCLOSURE, WHICH MUST ONCE HAVE CONTAINED ACCOMMODATION FOR A FAIRLY LARGE GARRISON , IS NOW ONE MASS OF FALLEN HOUSES AND PILES OF HEWN OR CHISELLED STONES . THE SERIES OF LIFTS, MADE FOR CARRYING WATER FROM THE BED OF THE STREAM TO THE TOP OF THE HILL, HAVE LEFT THEIR MARKS.

NAMAL DAM



NAMAL LAKE, A PICTURESQUE HISTORICAL LAKE, IS 25KM FROM MIANWALI ON RAWALPINDI ROAD (WHICH LINKS ISLAMABAD TO KARACHI). SPREAD OVER 5.5 SQ KM, IT IS THE MOST BEAUTIFUL PLACE OF NAMAL VALLEY. THE HILL TORRENTS AND RAINS FILL THIS LAKE ROUND THE YEAR. IT DRIED UP LAST YEAR DUE TO A DROUGHT-LIKE SITUATION IN THE COUNTRY, WHICH IS THE FIRST INCIDENT OF ITS KIND DURING THE PAST 100 YEARS.


 IN 1913, TO MEET THE SCARCITY OF DRINKING AND IRRIGATING WATER IN THE NEWLY ESTABLISHED DISTRICT HEADQUARTERS AT MIANWALI, BRITISH ENGINEERS BUILT A DAM ON THIS LAKE AND FROM HERE THEY IRRIGATED LANDS UP TO MIANWALI CITY. CONSTRUCTION OF THAL CANAL AND INSTALLATION OF TUBE-WELLS HAS REDUCED UTILIZATION OF ITS WATERS. , ITS UTILITY OF WATER SQUEEZED UP TO SOME LIMIT.

THE GATES OF THE DAM ARE REPAIRED BY THE IRRIGATION DEPARTMENT REGULARLY BUT WITHOUT ENTHUSIASM. THE HILL TORRENTS AND RAINS FILL THE NAMAL LAKE ROUND THE YEAR. DUE TO A DROUGHT-LIKE SITUATION IN THE COUNTRY, THIS LAKE DRIED UP LAST YEAR, WHICH IS THE FIRST INCIDENT OF ITS KIND DURING THE LAST 100 YEARS. PRESENTLY, ITS CONDITION IS VERY BAD.

NAMAL LAKE IS AN IDEAL ABODE FOR THE MIGRATORY BIRDS IN WINTER SEASON WHEN THOUSANDS OF WATER FOWLS, INCLUDING RUSSIAN DUCKS AND SIBERIAN CRANES, LAND IN THE LAKE WATER. THERE EXISTS A CENTURY-OLD REST HOUSE STANDING ON THE NORTHERN EDGE OF NAMAL LAKE. ONCE A PICNICS SPOT FOR THE BRITISH OFFICERS, IT IS NOW ALTOGETHER NEGLECTED. AT THE BANKS OF NAMAL LAKE, THERE ARE TWO WELL-KNOWN SHRINES OF HAFIZ MUHAMMAD AZEEM ALIAS HAFIZ JEE AND PEER KHAKI SHAH. THE SHRINES OF NARAPEER IN THE VILLAGE CHAKRALA AND MAULANA ALLAH YAR AT MURSHADABAD, ATTRACT THOUSANDS OF SPIRITUAL FOLLOWERS FROM FAR AND NEAR ANNUALLY.

 

 

NAMAL COLLEGE

NAMAL COLLEGE IS LOCATED AT RIKHI IN MIANWALI DISTRICT OF PAKISTAN, HAS BECOME AN ASSOCIATE COLLEGE OF THE UNIVERSITY. THE COLLEGE  DEVELOPED BY THE MIANWALI DEVELOPMENT TRUST (MDT). AS WELL AS BEING THE UNIVERSITY’S CHANCELLOR, IMRAN KHAN IS ALSO CHAIRMAN OF THE MDT AND WAS A MEMBER OF THE PARLIAMENT (MNA) FROM THE MIANWALI DISTRICT FROM 2002 – 2007. THE FIRST PHASE OF CONSTRUCTION OF COLLEGE COMPLETED IN APRIL 2008 AND THE ADMISSION COMMENCED THE SAME MONTH. THE COLLEGE IS SITUATED AT RIKHI ON TALAGUNG MIANWALI ROAD VERY NEAR TO NAMAL LAKE. THE 40 KANAL LAND FOR THIS COLLEGE WAS PROVIDED BY MR GHULAM MUHAMMAD ‘SEELU’, A LOCAL RESIDENT.

THE FIRST PHASE OF DEVELOPMENT FOCUS ON ESTABLISHING EXPERTISE IN SPECIFIC SUBJECT AREAS LIKE AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRIES, WITH POSSIBILITIES OF TEACHER TRAINING AND HEALTH IN PHASE II. A KEY FOCUS WILL BE THE INITIAL TRAINING AND CONTINUING DEVELOPMENT OF STAFF AT NAMAL COLLEGE WITH THE UNIVERSITY OF BRADFORD – WHO WILL SUPPORT THE PROGRAMME. THE UNIVERSITY WILL PROVIDE APPROPRIATE ADVICE ON CURRICULUM, QUALITY ASSURANCE, STUDENT SUPPORT MATTERS AND ADMINISTRATION.THE UNIVERSITY OF BRADFORD’S LATEST CHANCELLOR, THE FORMER CRICKETER IMRAN KHAN, HAS BROKERED A DEAL TO SET UP LINKS BETWEEN THE UNIVERSITY AND THIS COLLEGE AND THE MOVE IS EXPECTED TO BUILD LINKS BETWEEN BRADFORD, WHICH HAS A RELATIVELY HIGH PROPORTION OF PAKISTANI STUDENTS, AND PAKISTAN. IT IS MR KHAN’S FIRST ACT AS CHANCELLOR AFTER BEING APPOINTED TO THE POSITION IN EARLY 2006.

THE COLLEGE WAS INAUGURATED BY SYED YOUSAF RAZA GILLANI, THE PRIME MINISTER OF PAKISTAN, ON 27 APRIL, 2008




RIKHI

RIKHI IS A SMALL VILLAGE SITUATED ON MIANWALI-RAWALPINDI ROAD, ON THE NORTHERN SIDE OF NAMAL LAKE RIKHI IS AT A A DISTANCE OF 32 KILOMETERS FROM MIANWALI CITY.THIS VILLAGE IS PART OF MOZA KALRI. POPULATION PREDOMINANTLY BELONGS TO THE SIGHAAL AWAN CLAN OF AWAN TRIBE. THIS IS THE LAST VILLAGE OF AWANKARI REGION; AND BEYOND THE DHAK MOUNTAINS, THE AREA OF NIAZI TRIBE STARTS. THE VILLAGE IS SITUATED AT NORTHERN BANK OF NAMAL LAKE. NAMAL COLLEGE SET UP BY IMRAN KHAN IS ALSO SITUATED NEAR THIS VILLAGE.

RIKHI IS ALSO A HOME TO SOME EMINENT KARACHI BASED TRANSPORTERS OF PAKISTAN. THERE ARE MANY FAMOUS PERSONALITIES BELONGING TO THIS VILLAGE:

* SYED NAZAR HUSSAIN SHAH (LATE) RETIRED HEADMASTER, WHO HAD GREAT CONTRIBUTION IN BUILDING UP THE FUTURE OF THE LOCALITY.

* HAJI ABBAS AWAN, (LATE) PROMINENT TRANSPORTER OF KARACHI

* IQBAL AWAN – A PARAMEDICAL PROFESSIONAL SETTLED IN CANADA

* MALIK ASGHAR AWAN – OWNER OF AWAN COACHES AND BASED IN KARACHI.

* MALIK SAIFULLAH AWAN – DHOKE SEELO – WORKING WITH UNITED NATION AS TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEER (ITALY)

* DR GHULAM MUHAMMAD MALIK – EX PROFESSOR/ORTHOPAEDIC SURGEON.ISLAMABAD

* DR MUHAMMAD NAEEM AWAN- EYE SURGEON MAYO HOSPITAL LAHORE.

* DR MUHAMMAD ASIF AWAN – ISLAMABAD.

* MALIK JAVED SHAKEEL KHAN NAZIM UNION COUNCIL RIKHI

KALRI

KALRI IS A DEVELOPING VILLAGE LOCATED IN THE MIANWALI DISTRICT OF PUNJAB PROVINCE, PAKISTAN. IT IS 34 MILES AWAY FROM MIANWALI SITUATED AT TALAGANG-RAWALPINDI ROAD. IT IS ALSO CLOSE TO NAMAL LAKE AND NAMAL COLLEGE. THIS VILLAGE IS SITUATED AT THE FOOTHILL OF SALT RANGE. RIKHI IS NEARBY VILLAGE AND PART OF MAUZA KALRI.




KALRI IS PART OF THE AWANKARI REGION. ITS POPULATION MOSTLY BELONGS TO THE SIGHAAL AWAN CLAN OF THE AWAN TRIBE. THERE ARE SOME MEMBERS OF LOWER CASTES.


THE VILLAGE HAS A BOY’S HIGH SCHOOL WITH EXCELLENT RESULTS OVER TIME. THE VILLAGE WAS ELECTRIFIED DURING THE EARLY 1980S. THERE IS ALSO A WATER SUPPLY SCHEME.

 

GOVT HIGH SCHOOL KALRI

GHS KALRI WAS OPEN IN 1925 AS PRIMARY SCHOOL LATER ON IN 1955 IT WAS GIVEN THE STATES OF MIDDLE SCHOOL .IN 1975 SCHOOL WAS  CONVERTED INTO SECONDARY SCHOOL

AHMED GUL KHEL


AHMED GUL KHEL IS A NAME OF A SMALL CLAN OF SIGHAAL AWAN TRIBE. THE SMALL HAMLET WHERE THE CLAN RESIDES IS KNOWN AS DHOKE AHMED GUL KHEL WHICH IS A PART OF KALRI VILLAGE IN TEHSIL AND DISTRICT MIANWALI OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN. THIS IS SITUATED AT DISTANCE OF 37 KILOMETERS FROM MIANWALI OFF THE RAWALPINDI-MIANWALI ROAD.THIS VILLAGE IS PART OF AWANKARI REGION.

























Comments

CHAKRALA – NAMAL-KALRI-RIKHI — 6 Comments

  1. EXCELLENT. ALL INFORMATIONS ARE UP TO DATE AND VERY GOOD. SITE IS WELL MAINTAINED BY WONDERFULL PICTURES. I WISH YOU BEST OF LUCK. PLEASE KEEP IT UP.

  2. Chikrala was not named after Hindu tribe but its name originated from word Chikarh ( Mud).It so happened that a saint passing by this village saw a jackal all covered with wet soil (Chikarh).There he said Gidar Chikarh m-e. (Jacal in Mud)
    Chikrala did not come in existance in 1300 century but it came into being right after Mahmood Ghaznavi’s attacks on Somnat( Indian Rajistan).King Mahmood Ghaznavi’s prime minister and army chief was Qutab Sha Awan who selected this salt range upto Kalar Ghar as natural built fort for protection of their kingdom from any future attack . So he kept his sons/ trust worhy war lords in Lawa, Chikrala,Talagang, Kalar Ghar & Sakesar to provide Lashkar for future war/attacks and also to provide labour to carry food/stuff needed for army .People at Kalar Ghar and Sakessar were earmarked to give early warning of any attack from East .
    The writer has also missed to inform about the BRAVEST soldiar of Chikrala .Sher Shah from Karmula tribe
    who was decorated with VICTORIA CROSS in 1st world war (1912 — 1918).
    I will request the Young people working for it to work out /collect date and place on the sit for information.
    Number of PHD from Chikrala.
    Number of MSC from Chikrala.
    Number of students with distinction in BSC & MSC
    Number of schools/ colleges with 100% passed results
    Never feel shy to mention about scools/colleges with worst results.
    Malik Atta

  3. A marvelous beautiful elaborate description of area.A sincere &exhaustive effort But it requires to be updated Incomplete homework & local information for example I have not been included in the list of prominent peoples of RIKHI and many more whom everybody knows
    I request the editor/manager of this site to please update right information Thanks

  4. Great scholar of Chakrala has also been left out .It is height of ignorance of young generation to miss such scholar. Qazi Abdullah chakralwi(1st name Ghulam Nabi) died in 1916.Though started with a new school of thought but was among top few scholars of India. Sect Ahl al-Quran book Burhan ul Furqan ala Salat ul Quran Abdullah Chakralavi has made an attempt to “extract” a namaz based purely on the Quran. Maulvi Abdullah obstinately stuck to this new form of NAMAZ which, according to him, was the only way of saying prayers. His prescribed “Qurani” prayer differed from other sects in terms of the number of rakats to be offered, some postures to be adopted and verses or salutations to be read during its rituals.Such a prayer could not have been allowed in any mosque anywhere in India –Maulwi Abdullah preached his teaching in Lahore .Maulwi Abdullah came to Chakrala around 2012 with prior permission/ protection of DC Mianwali.He was kept in Qazi Mahala and was not allowed to preach any more. He married with his follower/ care taker lady (He asked his son to marry with that care taker who refused because she was out of their family) some time prior to his death and was blessed with an intelligent daughter after his death.The widow of Maul vi Abdullah announced of expecting a legitimate baby of her husband.She requested DC Mianwali to carry out all available medical checks to prove that she was pregnant of her husband.She was not owned / accepted by Maul vi Sahib’s sons from his 1st wife so she left Chakrala and took shelter of Moch tribe in Moch town near Mianwali. That baby broke all previous held acdamic records of primary , middle and high school of combined Punjab. Later moch tribe did not support her to continue her higher education so she got a job in district ( Cambelpur) Attock as school inspectress and then she was married to a Jadoon family and got settled in Abbotabad. Her kids are settled in Abbotabad and one of her grand sons is married to daughter of famous scientist .Maulvi Abdullah’s complete library was taken over by Haji Abdullah of chakrala from Dewbandi school of thoughts.It should be available with Malik Abdul Razaque son of Haji Abdullah and the Chakralwi school of thought originated from Qazi Mahala of Chakrala came to an end in Chakrala

    My learned friends can edit it and can update the subject for the benefit of our new generation.
    Malik Atta

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